Xhosa

Isikhokelo Esilula Sofuyo Lweenkukhu Kumaphandle Asemzantsi Afrika (Trans.Joyce Mafu)

Illustration: Susan Powell

Eyona njongo iphambili yale ncwadi kukunceda iintsapho zasemaphandleni, ezifuye iinkukhu nje ezimbalwa, ezingakwaziyo ngoko ukufumana iingcebiso ngokulula, ukuze ziphucule imveliso yenyama namaqanda. Le nyama namaqanda ziqulathe izakhamzimba ezibalukileyo ebantwaneni ukuze bakhule kakuhle, bomelele emzimbeni nasengqondweni. Ezi zakhamzimba zikwaluncedo kakhulu koomama abancancisayo. Ukutya okunezondlo kubalulekile ukuze ubani abesempilweni entle.
Le ncwadana ilungiselelwe ukuphucula imveliso yeenkukhu zasemakhaya (okanye iityiphu), ngokusebenzisa iindlela ezilula nezingaxabisi kakhulu. Amaxesha amaninzi oomama bafuya iinkukhu kuba beyazi indima ebalulekileyo eziyidlalayo empilweni yabo nabantwana babo. Ufuyo lweenkukhu lunganceda nasekonyuseni imali-ngeniso ekhayeni. Iinkukhu zasemakhaya nezikhukukazi ezidala zithengiseka ngexabiso elincumisayo eMzantsi Afrika, kwaye namaqanda athengiseka lula ekuhlaleni.

Le ncwadana yahlulwe yangamacandelo amahlanu:

  1. Izindlu zeenkukhu
  2. Ukwanda kweenkukhu nokuqandusela kwazo
  3. Ukukhuliswa kweenkukhu
  4. Ukondliwa kweenkukhu
  5. Ezempilo

Imibulelo

Illustration: Susan Powell

Ndinqwenela ukwenza ilizwi lombulelo kwaba bantu balandelayo, ekuguquleleni le ncwadana kwezi lwimi zilandelayo: Kobie du Preez kwisiBhulu, Tebo Magolego kwisiSuthu, Joyce Mafu kwisiXhosa, Qeda Nyoka kwisiZulu noEdward Nesamvuni kwisiVenda.

Iingcebiso ezakhayo kwizinto ezibhaliweyo zivele kuE. Wethli, Stephen Slippers noE. Nesamvuni.

Imizobo yenziwe ngobuchule nguSusan Powell, naye oye waneengcebiso ezakhayo. Ndibulela uSusan kunye noKathy Kamarinos ngokuncedisa ekuhlanganisweni kwale ncwadana.

Imali yokuveliswa kwale ncwadana ikhutshwe yiproject ebhatalelwa e-Australia, elawulwa liqumrhu ekuthiwa yi-International Development Program eCanberra. Enye ivele kumanyano lwezizwe ngezizwe olujongene nezenzululwazi kwezokutya, olubizwa ngokuba yi-International Union of Nutritional Sciences. Ndenza umbulelo ongazenzisiyo ngezi mali.

D.J. FARRELL
The University of Queensland
April, 2000

Izindlu zeenkukhu

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Iinkukhu zifuna indlu eyomeleleyo. Kufanele zitshixelwe ebusuku ukuzikhusela kwimozulu embi, kwiintshaba nakumasela. Ukuzivalela iinkukhu kunceda nasekubeni umfuyi wazo akwazi ukusoloko ezihlola ukuba aziguli okanye azifuni kuhoywa na. Kukwanceda nasekuqokeleleni amaqanda azo, kuba abandawonye ngoko afumaneke lula.
  • Kubalulekile ukuba uyikhethe ngobunono indawo owakha kuyo indlu. Kufuneka indawo enomthunzi, eyomileyo, ekhuselekileyo, ekumhlaba othe tyaba ukuze ihlale yomile ngexesha lemvula. Kusengafuneka ukuba umfuyi agrumbe umjelo ojikeleze indlu leyo, okanye awonyuse umhlaba aza kwakha kuwo.
  • Indlu ingakhiwa ngexabiso eliphantsi, kusetyenziswa izinto ezifumaneka kwalapha ekuhlaleni ezinjengeepali zomthi wegum, iingcongolo nengca yokufulela. Nguwe oyakubona into onokuyisebenzisa. Le ndlu mayibe kufutshane kule ihlala abantu. Makutshentwe yonke ingca nezicithi ezikwisithuba esiziimitha ezintathu ukusuka endlwini apho. Oko kukhusela iinkukhu kwiinyoka nasezimpukwini. Abanye abantu bazakhela phezulu izindlu zeenkukhu, mhlawumbi phezu kweepali ezigrunjekweyo, ukuzikhusela kumasela anjengezinja, iimpuku, iinyoka nabantu.
  • Ubungakanani bendlu buxhomekeke kwinani leenkukhu zakho. Indlu eyenzelwe iinkukhu ezili-10 ukuya kwi-15, kufanele ibeziimitha ezimbini icala ngalinye. Kungcono ukuba indlu ibenkulu kakhulu kunokuba ibencinci kakhulu.

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Kufanele ibenocango olomeleleyo, ingenise ukukhanya nomoya omtsha ngokufanelekileyo. Kufanele izikhusele iinkukhu emvuleni nasemoyeni. Kufanele kubekho iindawo zokulala (mhlawumbi iipali ezinqamlezileyo), njengoko iinkukhu zithanda ukulala kwiindawo eziphezulu, hayi emhlabeni.
  • Makubekho izitya zokutya nezamanzi. Kungasetyenziswa izinto ezingabizi mali ingako, ezinjengeenkonkxa nezinye izinto ezinokufumaneka. Amanzi kufanele asoloko efuduselwa kwezinye iindawo kwalapho endlwini, njengoko eyimanzisa indlu xa ebekwe ndawonye.
  • Iinkukhu zifuna iinesi ukuze zizalele. Kufuneka iinesi ezintathu kwiinkukhu ezili-10 ukuya kwezili-15. Iinesi mazibekwe kwindawo ezolileyo apho endlwini, kwisithuba esingangokusuka emhlabeni ukuya edolweni. Unokusebenzisa ibhaskithi endala, inkonkxa okanye i-emele endala ekhutshwe umzantsi, iinkuni okanye amatye. Yizalise inesi ngengca okanye istroyi, uze uyigcine icocekile. Amaqanda waqokelele yonke imihla, uze uwagcinele iinkukhu ezifuna ukufukama.
  • Indlu yigcine icocekile maxa onke. Ungondlala ingca okanye imvuthuluka yamaplanga phantsi xa unakho. Ubulongwe nobunye ubumdaka mabugutyulwe kanye ngenyanga, buze buyekwe phandle buvunde phambi kokuba busetyenziswe egadini. Lo mgquba uyakuzinceda izityalo zakho zikhule kakuhle.

Ukwanda kweenkukhu nokuqandusela kwazo

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Qaphelisisa ukuba zeziphi iinkukhu ezibeka awona maqanda maninzi; ezinobuchule bokufukama nokukhulisa amantshontsho azo, ukuze ubenakho ukukhetha ezo zikhukukazi zizindlezana. Amathokazi avela kwiinkukhu ezinezimpawu wagcinele ukwandisa iinkukhu zakho.
  • Zigcine izikhukukazi ezivelisa amantshontsho awomeleleyo, nakhula ngokukhawuleza ukuvelisa inyama. Idla ngokuba ziinkunzi zenkukhu ezikhula ngokukhawuleza, kwaye zezona zilungele ukutyiwa.
  • Izikhukukazi zakho zidibanise nezo nkunzi zikhula zibenkulu. Musa ukusebenzisa iinkunzi ezinqapheleyo okanye ezingenamzimba ukwandisa iinkukhu zakho. Ezo nkunzi kufanele zitshitshiswe ngokuthengiswa okanye zixhelwe.
  • Bubuchule ukuba maxa wambi uthathe ezinye iinkunzi nezikhukukazi utshintshise ngazo kwabanye abafuyi, ukuthintela umbulo – ootata bangadibani neentombi zabo okanye oomama badibane noonyana babo. Umbulo wenza inzala engakhuli kakuhle nemveliso yamaqanda ephantsi.
  • Zitshitshise zonke iinkukhu ezingabeki maqanda ngokwanelisayo. Zona zitya nje ukutya, kodwa akukho nto zikwenzela yona wena mfuyi.
  • Iinkukhu ezifuna ukufukama mazibenenesi yazo eyodwa. Ungasebenzisa ibhaskithi efakwe ingca eyomileyo ngaphantsi, kulandele isanti, ize ibe yingca kwakhona ngaphezulu. Ezi zinto zifakwayo zikhusela amaqanda angophuki lula, ngolo hlobo kwande inani lamantshontsho aqanduselweyo.
  • Inesi mayibekwe kwikona emnyama ezolileyo, kude nezinye iinkukhu ezileleyo endlwini. Iinkukhu ezifukamayo mazisoloko zifumana amanzi nokutya maxa onke. Inkukhu iqandusela emva kweentsuku ezingama-21.

Illustration:Susan Powell

 

  • Qokelela onke amaqanda azalelwe ziinkukhu ngemini. Xa kukho inkukhu efuna ukufukama sukuyibekela ngaphezu kwesi-6 ukuya kwisi-8 samaqanda. Ambalwa kakhulu amantshontsho anokukhuliswa yinkukhu ngexesha. La maqanda mawabe ngawezonkukhu zibeka amaqanda amaninzi okanye ezo ziqandusela amantshontsho akhula msinya.
  • Musa ukuvumela yonke inkukhu efuna ukufukama yenze njalo – khetha kuphela ezo zinenkathalo. Ukuba uthatha inkukhu efuna ukufukama uyivalele yodwa iintsuku ezi-4 ukuya kwezi-5, iyayeka ukufuna ukufukama iphinde iqalise ukuzalela.

Ukukhuliswa kweenkukhu

Illustration: Susan Powell

Ukukhuliswa kwamantshontsho

  • Amantshontsho afuna ucoselelo okanye inkathalo egqithileyo, xa esemancinci kakhulu. Izikhukukazi ke ziyashiyana ngokukwazi ukwenza oko ngempumelelo.
  • Kweeza veki zi-3 ukuya kwezi-4 zokuqala, amantshontsho afuna ucoselelo olukhulu nokhuseleko olungqingqwa kwiintshaba nakwimozulu. Kufanele avalelwe nonina kwihoko enakho ukumana ifuduselwa kwindawo entsha mihla le. Qinisekisa ukuba ihoko leyo inkulu ngokwaneleyo ukuba akwazi ukujikeleza, kwaye kusoloko kukho ukutya okunjengentshela okanye nantoni na ebityiwa ngabantu.
  • Amantshontsho wagcine omile kwaye efudumele, maxa onke. Kubalulekile ukuba afunde ukuziphandela okanye ukuqhwaya ukutya nonina. Ebusuku zonke iinkukhu namantshontsho mazivalelwe kwindlu enokhuseleko olungqingqwa.
  • Apha emini amantshontsho mawasoloko enokutya. Ungaqala ngokuwapha amaqanda abilisisiweyo aze enziwa imvuthuluka, ze ekuhambeni kweentsuku ulandelise ngamasuntswana ombona okanye umngqusho, iimvuthuluka zesonka nomgubo wombona okrwada okanye ophekiweyo. Emva kweentsuku ezili-10, waphe kabini kuphela ngemini, kwaye uwaphe ukutya akwaziyo ukukugqiba kwangoko, ukunqanda ilahleko.
  • Qinisekisa ukuba unina wamantshontsho akawatyeli. Ukutya kubeke kwindawo apho kunofikelela amantshontsho kuphela.
  • Makusoloko kukho amanzi okusela acocekileyo, kodwa amantshontsho agadwe angazimanzisi. Ungafaka amatye acocekileyo phakathi kwisitya esinamanzi, ukuthintela amantshontsho angatshoni.
  • Amantshontsho afileyo mawangcwatywe ngokukhawuleza, kude nendawo ezivalelwa kuyo iinkukhu.
  • Ungawakhupha ehokweni amantshontsho xa sele eneeveki ezi-3 ukuya kwezi-4 ubudala, ajikeleze nonina. Qhubekeka ngokuwapha ukutya kwawo nangona esitya nakoku kweenkukhu ezindala, ukuze abenakho ukukhula kakuhle, esempilweni.
  • Xa sele eneeveki ezi-4, uyakubanakho ukwahlula phakathi kweenkunzi namathokazi. Iinkunzi zikhula ngokukhawuleza kwaye kufuneka ziphiwe ukutya okungaphezulu ukuzixhasa koko kukhula. Zama ukuzityisa bucala kwezinye iinkukhu isithuba esingangesiqingatha seyure ngemini.
  • Sukuzilinda zide zibendala iinkunzi zakho phambi kokuba uzitye okanye uzithengise. Oko kuya kongela ukutya, ubenokutya okuninzi kokondla iinkukhu zakho, kutsho kuvelise nendawo yokufaka amanye amantshontsho asakhulayo angena endaweni yeenkukhu ezityiweyo okanye ezithengisiweyo.

Ukunyamekelwa kwezikhukukazi

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Izikhukukazi ziqala ukuzalela xa zineenyanga ezi-6 ukuya kwezisi-8 ubudala. Xa iinkukhu zisondliwa kwaye ziphethwe ngobunono, ziqalisa msinya ukuzalela zize zizalele amaqanda amaninzi.
  • Ungele lwezikhukukazi ezizalelayo lubalukhulu, lube bomvu kwaye lukhazimle. Kanti xa zingazaleli, ungele luyaxweba lube bushwabana. Njengoko inkukhu ingasoloko izalela lonke ixesha, nombala wongele umana utshintsha njalo.
  • Qokelela amaqanda ezinesini ubuncinane kanye ngemini. Njengoko bekukhe kwatshiwo ngaphambili, inkukhu efukamayo yibekele amaqanda ama-6 ukuya kwi-8 kuphela.
  • Amaqanda sukuwagcina endaweni efudumeleyo, kwaye ungawagcini ixesha elingaphezu kweveki phambi kokuba uwathengise okanye uwatye kuba ayaguga, aze ke ngenxa yoko angabinakuqanduselwa xa ithe inkukhu yawafukama.
  • Amaqanda akhethelwa ukufukanywa mawacoceke kwaye abe neengceba ezomeleleyo. Amaqanda aneengceba ezicekethekileyo okanye eziqhekekileyo, awasayi kuqandusela. Iqanda elikhulu likhupha intshontsho elikhulu, elithi lingabinangxaki yokukhula ngokukhawuleza.
  • Xa izikhukukazi zakho sele zineminyaka emi-2 ukuya kwemi-3 ubudala, ziyayeka ukuzalela okanye zizalele manqapha-nqapha. Ngelo xesha ke kufanele uzitye okanye uzithengise, kuba kaloku ziyatya nje kungekho nto zikwenzela yona.

Ukondliwa kweenkukhu

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Ukuze iinkukhu zikhule kakuhle zizalele namaqanda amaninzi, kufanele zifumane ukutya okunengxubevange yezondlo namanzi acocekileyo.
  • Okunye ukutya zikufumana ngokuqhwaya umhlaba, zifumane iindidi zeerhorho, ingca nezinye izityalo. Nangona oko zikuqhwayayo ikukutya okulungileyo, kufanele ziphiwe okunye ukutya okongezelekileyo ukuze zivelise ngokwanelisayo.
  • Ukuba iimeko ziyavuma, amantshontsho wathengele ukutya kwawo uwaphe kona de abeneeveki ezi-4 ukuya kwezi-5 ubudala. Oku kutya makungakhe kutyiwe ziinkukhu ezindala, kuba kubiza imali eninzi kwaye akuzifanelanga. Ukuba uyaqonda ukuba ngathi amaxabiso ayakongamela, thethana nomnye umfuyi nidibane ngengxowa.
  • Xa ugalela ukutya kwamantshontsho, isitya masithi gabhu nje ukwenzela ukuba angakungaphalazi xa esitya, kuze kube yilahleko.
  • Maxa wambi izikhukukazi ziye zingayifumani ngokwaneleyo icalcium efunekayo ukwakha iingceba zamaqanda ezomeleyo. Oosinyeke bavelisa icalcium eninzi, kodwa eyona nto ixabisa phantsi engafumaneka kuyo yilimestone. Yona ke kufanele ziyiphiwe yodwa iinkukhu, kwindawo eyomileyo. Neengceba zamaqanda ezophuliweyo zikwaluncedo, kodwa kufanele ziqale zibiliswe nemifuno, ukuze zingahambisi izifo ezingathi kanti zizithwele.

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Ukutya okulahlwayo ekhayeni nokuba yintshela kubalulekile, kodwa kufanele kunikwe iinkukhu kungekabi kudala. Ukuba unemifuno onqwenela ukuyipha iinkukhu zakho, bubuchule ukuyibilisa kuqala ukuze kube lula ukucoleka kwayo ngaphakathi emzimbeni. Neziqhamo ezinjengamabhanana nezinye, zizilungele kakhulu iinkukhu. Licebo elihle ukuzipha oku kutya xa zivalelwa ukuba zilale, ukuzikhuthaza ukuba zivuke ekuseni zinomdla wokuya kuziphandela.
  • Amathambo avela kwinyama (nokuba yeyiphi) ebiphekiwe ekhayeni, angomiswa aze acolwe anikwe iinkukhu. La mathambo anezakhamzimba ezininzi, kuquka icalcium, ezibaluleke kakhulu ekukhuleni nasempilweni yeenkukhu.
  • Amakhatshu aphuma xa kusilwa/kucolwa umbona okanye ingqolowa nawo aluncedo kakhulu ezinkukhwini. Zama ukusoloko uzikhangelela ukutya kokongezelela iinkukhu zakho. Akukho xesha apho kukhe kwanele ngalo.

Ezempilo

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Ukuhlanzeka iwona khiye enkukhwini enempilo. Izinkukhu ezinempilo enhle ezizalela amaqanda amaningi futhi ezikhula kahle.
  • Ukugcina izinkukhu zihlale zinempilo, kufanele uzinike amanzi ahlanzekile. Hlanza izitsha zamanzi nezokudla nendlu yezinkukhu ngaso sonke isikhathi.
  • Izinkukhu kufanele zicwaningwe zonke izinsuku kuze kubonakale ukuthi ayikho yini egulayo.
  • Izinkukhu ezigulayo kufanele zihlukaniswe kulezo ezingaguli, zibe nendlu yazo zodwa zinikwe amanzi ahlanzekile nokudla okuthe xaxa. Uma zisencane kufanele zihlale zifudumele futhi zomile. Uma zingelulami kuze kudlule izinsuku ezingu 4 kuya kwezingu-5 kufanele uzibulale uzigqibe.
  • Inkukhu esencane egulayo ayidli. Iba namaqubu avokomele futhi asokeme aphuma igazi. Izinkukhu ezindala ezigulayo ziba namaqubu angcolile ngasesitibhilini. Kungaba namaqashana ezimpapheni noma kugedla lwangezansi. Ezinye izinkukhu ngeke zikwazi ukuhamba kahle. Imilenze engaqinile noma ukugoba kwezinzwane kungaba yimbangela. Uma zingakwazi ukuhamba kufanele zibulawe, ngoba vele zizongcina zizifele.

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Uma inkukhu isizifele kufanele isuswe ngokushesha phakathi kwezinye bese iyagqitshwa. Ningayidli ngoba izobangela ukugula kuwo wonke umuntu ekhaya.
  • Izinkukhu kufanele zihlale zinempilo uma ufuna zikhule kahle futhi zizalele amaqanda amaningi. Amanye amagciwane angaba khona endaweni ngaso sonke isikhathi, kufanele uzivikele ngokuthi uzigome.
  • Isifo seNyukhasela (isiqothu) singabulala zonke izinkukhu zakho ngokushesha, kubalulekile ukuthi uzigomele yona. Kufanele uthole ulwazi ehhovisini lomeluleki wezinkukhu wasendaweni ukuthi zigonywa kanjani. Uma ungazigomi, ungalahlekelwa yizo zonke izinkukhu zakho.
  • Uma kunezinkukhu eziningi ezigulayo, kufanele ufune usizo olusheshayo kumuntu onolwazi olunzulu ngamangciwane ezinkukhu. Usungake uzame-ke umuthi oyisipesheli wezinkukhu.