Zulu

Izinkukhu Zasemakhaya – Indlela Elula Yokufuywa Kwezinkukhu Zasemakhaya Eningizimu Africa (Trans. Qeda Nyoka)

Isandulelo

Illustration: Susan Powell

Inhloso enkulu yalencwadi ukusiza abantu basemakhaya abanezinkukhu ezincane ngesibalo futhi abangakwazi ukuthola izeluleko kalula ukwenyusa umkhiqizo wenyama namaqanda ngezinkukhu zabo. Lokhu kunikeza umsoco oyisakhamzimba odingwa izingane ukuze zikhule futhi ukhulise nemiqondo yazo ukuze zikwazi ukufunda kalula futhi zikhule ziqinile. Kubaluleke kakhulu futhi ukuthi omama abancelisayo babe nomsoco oyisakhamzimba owanele futhi osezingeni eliphezulu, njengalowo otholakala emaqandeni nasenyameni yenkukhu. Ukudla okunomsoco onezakhamzimba kuyisidingo somzimba ophile kahle.

Lencwajana yakhelwe ukwenyusa umkhiqizo wezinkukhu zasekhaya ezizifunelayo ukudla futhi ezingagadwa, ngokusebenzisa izinto ezitholakala kalula, kanye nezindlela ezilula zokuzinakekela. Omama ikakhulukazi abazinakekelayo izinkukhu ngoba bayakwazi ukubaluleka kwamaqanda nenyama yenkukhu ekudleni okuhle nokunempilo, kubo nasezinganeni zabo. Ukufuya izinkukhu kungakwenza ukuthi uthole enye imali eyinzuzo ngaphezulu. Izinkukhu zasemakhaya nezinkukhu esezindala zibiza imali enhle kabi emakhaya aseSouth Africa kanti kulula nokudayisela omakhelwane amaqanda.

Lencwajana yehlukaniswe izahlukwana ezinhlanu:

  1. Izindlu zezinkukhu
  2. Ukuzalanisa nokuchamuselisa
  3. Ukuphathwa Kwezinkukhu
  4. Ukondliwa kwezinkukhu
  5. Ezempilo

Ukubonga

Illustration: Susan Powell

Ngifisa ukubonga kulaba abalandelayo ngokuhumusha lencwajana ngokwezilimi ezilandelayo: uKobie du Preez – isiBhunu; Tebo Magolego – isiSuthu; Joyce Mafu – isiXhosa; Qeda Nyoka – isiZulu kanye noEdward Nesamvumi – isiVenda. Ngibonga ku-Funda Zulu ngosizo lwakhe ekuhumusheni kwesiZulu. Ngibonga nakulaba: Ed Wethli, Stephen Slippers no-Nesamvumi ngemibono yabo eyakhaya.
Ngibonga ikhono lomdwebo-mifanekiso eyenziwe ngobunono uSusan Powell kanye nezeluleko zakhe. Ngibonge futhi uSusan kanye noKathy Kamarinos ngokuthayipha baphinde bahlanganise zonke izigaba zalencwajana.
Lencwajana ixhaswe ngaphansi kwomsebenzi wama-Australians obizwa ngokuthi ‘Umsebenzi wokuxhumana’ ophethwe ngabe – International Development Program, yaseCanberra e-Australia kanye nabe – International Union of Nutritional Science. Ngibonga kakhulu ngoxhaso lwabo lwezezimali.

D.J. FARRELL
The University of Queensland
April, 2000

Izindlu zezinkukhu

  • Izinkukhu zidinga indlu eyakhiwe yaqina. Kumele zivalelwe ebusuku ukuze zivikeleke esimweni sezulu esingesihle, ezilwaneni ezidla izinkukhu, nasemaseleni, nokuzinikeza wena ithuba lokubona ukuthi azikho yini ezigulayo. Lokhu kukwenza ukwazi futhi ukuqoqa amaqanda endaweni eyodwa ngesikhathi esisodwa.
  • Kumele uhlele ngokucophelela ipulani lapho uzokwakha khona indlu yezinkukhu. Udinga indawo enethunzi, eyomile futhi eqondile. Kubalulekile ukumba umsele wokuhamba amanzi uzungeze indlu noma uqale ngokuphakamisa indawo ngaphambi kokuba wakhe, ukuze kuhlale komile nangezikhathi zezimvula.
  • Indlu ungayakha ishibhe ngokusebenzisa izinto ezitholakala eduze. Kufanele ubone ukuthi yini ekhona, kungakuhle ibe seduze nomuzi, utshani nehlathi kucekwe indawo engangamanyathelo amathathu ukusuka endlini, ukuvikela izinyoka namagundane. Ezinye izindlu zakhelwa emapalini zibe ngaphezulu komhlabathi. Lokhu kuvikela izinkukhu ezilwaneni ezifana nezinyoka, izinja namagundane.
  • Ubungako bendlu buncike enanini lezinkukhu ozifuyile. Ezinkukhwini eziyishumi (10) kuya kweziyishumi nanhlanu (15), indlu ingaba okungenani amanyathelo amade amabili ububanzi kanye namanyathelo amathathu ubude. Kungcono ukuthi indlu ibenkulu kakhulu kunokuba ibencane kakhulu.

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Indlu kufanele ibe nesivalo esivikelekile, esikwaziyo ukungenisa umoya nokukhanya okuningi. Kufanele ikwazi ukuvikela ukushintshashintsha kwesimo sezulu kodwa ingangenisi umoya obandayo. Kufanele kubekhona imigoqo yokugibela, ngoba izikhukhukazi ziyathanda ukulala kulemigoqo kunokuthi zilale phansi.
  • Indlu kufanele ibe nezitsha zokudlela ukuze ukudla kuzohlale komile. Kufanele ibe nezitsha zamanzi futhi. Lezizinto zingakhiwa ngendlela eshibhile kusetshenziswa amathini noma izitsha zobumba. Shintshashintsha izitsha zamanzi uzibeke ezindaweni ezahlukene uma sekuqala ukuba manzi lapho kade zikhona.
  • Izidleke, izidleke ezakhiwe ngendlela yakhona kufanele zibekwe ezindaweni ezingenakho ukukhanya ngaphakathi endlini ukuze ukwazi ukuqoqa kahle amaqanda nokunika ithuba lezo ezithanda ukufukamela. Izidleke ezintathu zingalungela izinkukhu ezingu 10 kuya ku-15. Kufanele zibe ngaphezulu komhlabathi (isilinganiso esifika edolweni ubude). Lokhu kusiza ukuvikela amaqanda ezilwaneni nokuwagcina ehlanzekile. Kufanele wenze isiqinisekiso ukuthi izidleke zibekeke ngendlela yokuhi ungakwazi ukuthatha amaqanda kalula.
  • Kufanele uhhale indawo engcolile ngaso sonke isikhathi noma ufake okunye kokwendlalela phansi (ilitha/sodasti) uma kusekhona eyasala. Umanyolo nesodasti kufanele kususwe njalo kanye ngenyanga bese ibekwa engadini. Izitshalo zakho zokhula kahle. Kodwa ungawufaki umanyolo osemusha engadini ngoba ungashisa izitshalo.

Ukuzalanisa nokuchamuselisa

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Kufanele ubhekisise ukuthi iziphi izinkukhu ezizalela amaqanda amaningi, zikwazi kangakanani ukuhlala emaqandeni azo, zikwazi kangakanani ukunakekela amachwane azo, futhi iziphi ezingomama abasezingeni eliphezulu. Hlalisa imivimbazana nalabomama osubakhethile ukuze wandise izinkukhu zakho.
  • Gcina lezozinkukhu ezizalela amatshwele akhula ngokushesha futhi anosayizi abakhulu kube ezenyama. Lezi isikhathi esiningi kuba yilezo ezizoba amaqhude, futhi yizo ezilungele ukudliwa.
  • Izikhukhukazi kufanele zikhwelaniswe nalamaqhude amakhulu. Uyodinga amaqhude amabili (2) ezikhukhukazini ezingu-10. Dayisa ezesilisa ezingakhuli kahle. Ungazigcini futhi ungazisebenzisi ekukhiqizeni amatshwele.
  • Kuyisu elingcono kwesinye isikhathi ukushintshelana ngeqhude elilodwa noma amabili nangezikhukhukazi ezimbalwa ukushintsha uhlobo lwezinkukhu nomakhelwana abaqhelaqhelile nakini, lokho kuvikela ukwanda kohlobo olulodwa lwezinkukhu. Lokho kusho ukuvikela omama namadodana abo, kanye nobaba namadodakazi abo bangakhwelani bodwa. Lokho kungehlisa umkhiqizo wamaqanda nokukhula okungekuhle kwamatshwele.
  • Izinkukhu ezingazaleli kahle amaqanda kumele zinqunywe. Ngoba ziyadla nje kuphela kodwa zingakhiqizi lutho.
  • Faka izidleke ezahlukile zalezo zinkukhu ezifukamelayo ngaphezulu komhlabathi. Ungasebenzisa ubhasikidi onezimbobo. Faka utshani obomile, nehlabashana bese ufaka izimbaqa amaqanda ngeke afe kalula nezinga lokuchamisela lizobaphezulu.
  • Isidleke kumele sibekwe endaweni engangenwa ukukhanya, ekhoneni elithule kude nendawo elala ezinye izinkukhu. Amanzi nokudla kufanele zinikwe ngaso sonke isikhathi izinkukhu ezifukamayo. Isikhukhukazi sichamusela emva kwezinsuku ezingu-21.

  • Thatha onke amaqanda azalelwa usuku nosuku. Uma inkukhu ifuna ukufukamela beka amaqanda asemasha ayisithupha (6) kuya kwayisishiyagalombili (8) ukuze iwachamisele. Izinkukhu zikwazi ukunakekela ngokuphumelela amatshwele ambalwa. Amaqanda kufanele aphume kulezo ezizalela amaqanda amaningi noma kulezo ezikhiqiza amachwane akhula ngokushesha ezikhethelwe ukukhiqiza inyama (buka u1 & 2 ngenhla).
  • Amatshwele azochanyuselwa emva kwezinsuku ezingu-21. Akusizona zonke izikhukhukazi ezifuna ukuchamusela ezinikwa ithuba, kepha yilezo esezikhethiwe ukuthi zingomama abakwaziyo ukubhekela amatshwele azo. Ngaleyondlela zizoyeka ukufuna ukufukamela kodwa zizalele amanye amaqanda.

Ukuphathwa Kwezinkukhu

Illustration: Susan Powell

Ukukhuliswa kwamatshwele

  • Amatshwele asanda kuchanyiselwa adinga ukunakekelwa okukhulu. Ezinye izikhukhukazi zingomama abangcono kunezinye futhi zingakwazi ukukhulisa amatshwele amakhulu nanempilo, ngempumelelo.
  • Amaviki amathathu kuya kwamane abaluleke kakhulu empilweni yamatshwele ekutheni avikeleke esimweni sezulu nasezilwaneni. Kufanele abekwe endaweni evalekileyo ukuze avikeleke. Lendawo kufanele ikwazi ukugudluzeka, futhi ifanele ibe nkulu ngokwanele ukuze amatshwele akwazi ukuziklabela nonina. Lelihhoko kufanele ligudluzelwe endaweni eseyintsha ngaso sonke isikhathi.
  • Amatshwele kufanele ahlale omile futhi efudumele futhi kubalulekile ukuthi afunde konina ukuziklabela ukuze athole ukudla. Ebusuku izinkukhu namatshwele kufanele zivalelwe ehhokweni elivikelekile.
  • Emini amatshwele kufanele aphiwe ukudla. Okokuqala kungaba iqanda elibilisiweyo, nomgqakazo omncane, isinkwa, impuphu ephekiwe noma engaphekiwe. Emuva kwezinsukwana kufanele ziphiwe ukudla kabili ngosuku, uzinike ezizokwazi ukukudla zikuqede ngalekwalokho ukudla kuzomoseka.
  • Izikhukhukazi akufanele zidle ukudla kwamatshwele. Isikhadlana kufanele sivulwe ngendlela yokuthi kuzokwazi amatshwele odwa ukudla hhayi izikhukhukazi.
  • Amanzi ahlanzekile ayadingeka, afakwe ezitsheni ezifanelekile kodwa amatshwele akufanele abe manzi. Ungabeka amatshe ahlanzekile emanzini ukuze amatshwele angaweli phakathi.
  • Susa amatshwele afile ngokushesha uwagqibe kude nehhoko lezinkukhu.
  • Uma amatshwele esenamasonto angu 3- kuya ku 4 asengakhishwa ezindlini ezigudlulwayo aziklabele kakhudlwana nonina kodwa asuke esadinga ukunikwa okunye okudla okwehlukile kwezinye noma konina uma ufuna akhule kahle futhi abe nempilo.
  • Emavikini amathathu kufanele ube usukwazi ukuhlukanisa phakathi kwezesilisa nezesifazane, ngamehlo. Ezesilisa zikhula ngokushesha ngakho kufanele zinikwe ukudla okuningi ukuze zikwazi ukukhula ngokushesha. Uma kungenzeka, ungaziphela endaweni eyehlukile okungenani uhhafu we-hora ngosuku.
  • Ungalindi amaqhude aze akhule kakhulu ungakawadli noma uwadayise. Lokho kusho ukuthi uzokonga ukudla futhi ube nendawo eningi yokufaka izinkukhu ezintsha. Ungaba nokudla okuningi okusele ongakunika ezinye izinkukhu.

Ukuphathwa kwezikhukhukazi

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Izinkukhu ziqala ukuzalela uma sezinezinyanga ezingu 6- kuya kwezingu -8 ubudala. Ukuziphakela kahle nokuzinakekela kungazenza zisheshe zizalele zisencane futhi zizalele amaqanda amaningi.
  • Izikhukhukazi ezizalelayo ziba nezingedla ezinkulu ngokusengathi ziqumbile, ezibomvu ngokucwebezelayo. Isikhukhukazi esingazaleli siba nogedla okungathi lushwabene futhi oluphuphile. Izikhukhukazi ngoba zizalela zibuye zime, umbala wezingedla uyashintshashintsha isikhathi nesikhathi.
  • Qoqa onke amaqanda ezidlekeni okungenani kanye ngosuku. Njengoba sesike sasho kufanele ubeke amaqanda angu 6-kuya ku-8 enkukhwini efukamelayo.
  • Ungawabeki amaqanda endaweni efudumele. Ungawabeki kuze kudlule izinsuku ezingu 5-kuya ku-7 ungakawadayisi ngoba azobola futhi angeke achamuseleke uma efakwa enkukhwini efukamelayo.
  • Khetha amaqanda ahlanzekile, amakhulu, anegobolondo eliqile uwabeke ezinkukhwini ezifukamelayo amaqanda anamagobolondo amancane futhi anezimfa angeke achamisele. Iqanda elikhulu liyokhipha itshwele elikhulu elinempilo futhi elinamathuba amahle okukhula libe inkukhu ephilile.
  • Uma izikhukhukazi sezineminyaka engu 3 ubudala ziyama ukuzalela noma zizalele amaqanda angemaningi. Zidla ukudla kwakho zibe zingenayo inzuzo. Kufanele uzidle noma uzidayise, esikhaleni sazo ufake ezisencane ezisazozalela.

Ukondliwa kwezinkukhu

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Izinkukhu zidinga ukudla okuhlanganiswe kahle okuxutshwe ngezinto ezahlukene ukuze zikhule kahle futhi zikhiqize amaqanda amanngi. Zidinga nomthombo wamanzi ohlanzekile.
  • Zingakuthola okunye ukudla ngokuthi ziziqhwishele emhlabathini iminenke, izinambuzane, umbila, imisundu, imbewu notshani. Lena inhlanganisela enhle kodwa ayanele ekutheni zikhiqize kahle. Zidinga okunye ukudla.
  • Ungakuthenga ukudla uthengele amatshwele asemancane kakhulu. Zingakudla ukudla okubunjiwe noma umbila ogayiwe kuze kufike emasontweni angu 4-kuya kwangu-5 ubudala. Lokhu kufanele ukuthenge esitolo sokudla. Ungazivumeli izinkukhu ezindala zidle lokhu kudla, akuzifanele zona. Ningahlanganisa imali nomakhelwane uma kuyikuthi kuyadula nikuthenge ngobuningi.
  • Ungazigcwalisi ukudla izitsha ngoba izinkukhu zingakuchitha ngaphandle kumoseke.
  • Izinkukhu isikhathi esiningi azinayo i-calcium eyanele yokuqinisa amagobolondo amaqanda azo. Iminenke yisona sizinda esihle se-calcium kodwa ikaliki (limestone) ishibhile futhi kumele itholakale ngezitsha zayo zibekwe endaweni eyomile. Amagobolondo amaqanda agayiwe anganikwa izinkukhu ukuze alethe i-calcium kodwa kufanele abiliswe nemifino eluhlaza. Ngaleyondlela angeke andise amagciwane.
  • Ukudla okusale kudliwa endlini kubalulekile. Lokhu kufanele kungachithwa, akubekwe, bese kunikwa izinkukhu zidle kusekusha njalo ngosuku. Uma unokudla okuseceleni okusale engadini okunjengamazambane nokunye kufanele uziphe kodwa ukupheke khona zizokwazi ukukugaya kahle esiswini. Obhanana nezinye izithelo zilungile ezinkukhwini. Kuwumbono omuhle ukuthi uziphe ukudla okusale endlini uma usuzivalela ntambama. Lokho kuyozinika umfutho wokuthi ziklabe kusukela ekuseni.

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Amathambo aqhamuka ezinkukhwini eziphekiwe nakwezinye izilwane, angomiswa elangeni, agaywe acoyisakale, bese enikwa izinkukhu. Lokhu kuqukethe ama-mineral abalulekile, anjenge calcium, ukuze izinkukhu zihlale ziphilile.
  • Umbila nokolo ngesinye isikhathi ubakhona. Lokhu kuzilungele izinkukhu ezindala kodwa kufanele uzifunele enye inhlobo yokudla. Azeneliswa yilokho ezikutholayo.

Ezempilo

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Ukuhlanzeka iwona khiye enkukhwini enempilo. Izinkukhu ezinempilo enhle ezizalela amaqanda amaningi futhi ezikhula kahle.
  • Ukugcina izinkukhu zihlale zinempilo, kufanele uzinike amanzi ahlanzekile. Hlanza izitsha zamanzi nezokudla nendlu yezinkukhu ngaso sonke isikhathi.
  • Izinkukhu kufanele zicwaningwe zonke izinsuku kuze kubonakale ukuthi ayikho yini egulayo.
  • Izinkukhu ezigulayo kufanele zihlukaniswe kulezo ezingaguli, zibe nendlu yazo zodwa zinikwe amanzi ahlanzekile nokudla okuthe xaxa. Uma zisencane kufanele zihlale zifudumele futhi zomile. Uma zingelulami kuze kudlule izinsuku ezingu 4 kuya kwezingu-5 kufanele uzibulale uzigqibe.
  • Inkukhu esencane egulayo ayidli. Iba namaqubu avokomele futhi asokeme aphuma igazi. Izinkukhu ezindala ezigulayo ziba namaqubu angcolile ngasesitibhilini. Kungaba namaqashana ezimpapheni noma kugedla lwangezansi. Ezinye izinkukhu ngeke zikwazi ukuhamba kahle. Imilenze engaqinile noma ukugoba kwezinzwane kungaba yimbangela. Uma zingakwazi ukuhamba kufanele zibulawe, ngoba vele zizongcina zizifele.

Illustration: Susan Powell

  • Uma inkukhu isizifele kufanele isuswe ngokushesha phakathi kwezinye bese iyagqitshwa. Ningayidli ngoba izobangela ukugula kuwo wonke umuntu ekhaya.
  • Izinkukhu kufanele zihlale zinempilo uma ufuna zikhule kahle futhi zizalele amaqanda amaningi. Amanye amagciwane angaba khona endaweni ngaso sonke isikhathi, kufanele uzivikele ngokuthi uzigome.
  • Isifo seNyukhasela (isiqothu) singabulala zonke izinkukhu zakho ngokushesha, kubalulekile ukuthi uzigomele yona. Kufanele uthole ulwazi ehhovisini lomeluleki wezinkukhu wasendaweni ukuthi zigonywa kanjani. Uma ungazigomi, ungalahlekelwa yizo zonke izinkukhu zakho.
  • Uma kunezinkukhu eziningi ezigulayo, kufanele ufune usizo olusheshayo kumuntu onolwazi olunzulu ngamangciwane ezinkukhu. Usungake uzame-ke umuthi oyisipesheli wezinkukhu.